Today’s artist is a Chilean composer, songwriter, folklorist, ethnomusicologist and visual artist. She pioneered the "Chilean New Song", the Nueva canción chilena, a renewal and a reinvention of Chilean folk music which would extend its sphere of influence outside Chile, becoming acknowledged as "The Mother of Latin American folk". In 2011 Andrés Wood directed a biopic about her, titled Violeta se fue a los cielos (Violeta Went to Heaven ).....N'Joy
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Violeta Parra was born in San Fabián de Alico, near San Carlos, Ñuble Province, a small town in southern Chile on 4 October 1917, as Violeta del Carmen Parra Sandoval. She was a member of the prolific Parra family. Among her brothers were the notable modern poet, better known as the "anti-poet", Nicanor Parra, and fellow folklorist Roberto Parra. Her son, Ángel Parra, and her daughter, Isabel Parra, are also important figures in the development of the Nueva Canción Chilena. Their children have also mostly maintained the family's artistic traditions.
Her father was a music teacher and her mother worked on a farm, but sang and played the guitar in her spare time. Two years after Violeta's birth, the family moved to Santiago, then, two years later, to Lautaro and, finally, in 1927, to Chillán. It was in Chillán that Violeta started singing and playing the guitar, together with her siblings Hilda, Eduardo and Roberto; and soon began composing traditional Chilean music. After Parra's father died in 1929, the life circumstances of her family greatly deteriorated. Violeta and her siblings had to work to help feed the family.
In 1932, at the insistence of her brother Nicanor, Parra moved to Santiago to attend the Normal School, staying with relatives. Later, she moved back with her mother and siblings to Edison street, in the Quinta Normal district. The Parras performed in nightclubs, such as El Tordo Azul and El Popular, in the Mapocho district, interpreting boleros, rancheras, Mexican corridos and other styles. In 1934, she met Luis Cereceda, a railway driver, whom she married four years later, and with whom she had two children, Isabel (born 1939) and Ángel (born 1943). Her husband was a militant communist. At his side, Parra became involved in the progressive movement and the Communist Party of Chile, taking part in the presidential campaign of Gabriel González Videla in 1944.
Parra began singing songs of Spanish origin, from the repertoire of the famous Argentinian singers Lolita Torres and Imperio Argentina. She sang in restaurants and, also, in theatres, calling herself Violeta de Mayo. In 1945, she appeared with her children Isabel and Angel in a Spanish show in the Casanova confectionery.
In 1948, after ten years of marriage, Parra and Luis Cereceda separated. Parra and her sister Hilda began singing together as "The Parra Sisters", and they recorded some of their work on RCA VICTOR. In 1949, Violeta met and married Luis Arce. Their daughter Carmen Luisa was born in the same year. Parra continued performing: she appeared in circuses and toured, with Hilda and with her children, throughout Argentina. In 1952, Parra's second daughter, Rosita Clara, was born. In that same year, encouraged by her brother Nicanor, Violeta began to collect and collate authentic Chilean folk music from all over the country. She abandoned her old repertoire for folk songs, and began composing her own songs based on traditional folk forms.
Violeta gave recitals at universities, presented by Enrique Bello Cruz, a founder of several cultural magazines. Soon, Parra was invited to the "Summer School" at the University of Concepción. She was also invited to teach courses in folklore at the University of Iquique. In Valparaiso, she was presented at the Chilean-French Institute. Parra's two singles for EMI-Odeon label: "Que Pena Siente el Alma" and "Verso por el Fin del Mundo", and "Casamiento de Negros" and "Verso por Padecimiento" brought her a good measure of popularity.
Don Isaiah Angulo, a tenant farmer, taught her to play the guitarrón, a traditional Chilean guitar-like instrument with 25 strings. Along the way, Parra met Pablo Neruda, who introduced her to his friends. In 1970, he would dedicate the poem "Elegia para Cantar" to her. Between January and September 1954, Parra hosted the immensely successful radio program "Sing Violeta Parra" for Radio Chilena. The program was most often recorded in places where folk music was performed, such as her mother's restaurant in Barrancas. At the end of 1954, Parra participated in another folkloric program, for Radio Agriculture.
Violeta was invited to the World Festival of Youth and Students, in Warsaw, Poland, in July 1955. She then moved to Paris, France, where she performed at the nightclub "L'Escale" in the Quartier Latin. Meanwhile, back in Santiago her daughter Rosita Clara died (age 3). Violeta made contacts with European artists and intellectuals. Through the intervention of the anthropologist Paul Rivet she recorded at the National Sound Archive of the "Musée de l'Homme" La Sorbonne in Paris, where she left a guitarrón and tapes of her collections of Chilean folklore. She travelled to London to make recordings for EMI-Odeon and radio broadcasts from the BBC. Back in Paris, in March 1956, she recorded 16 songs for the French label "Chant du Monde" which launches its first two records with 8 songs each.
In November 1956, Violeta returned to Chile, and recorded the first LP of the series "The folklore of Chile" for the EMI Odeon label: "Violeta Parra and her guitar" which included three of her own compositions. In 1957 she followed with "La cueca" and "La tonada" (EMI Odeón) and "Composiciones de Violeta Parra". In the following years she built her house “Casa de Palos” on Segovia Street, in the municipality of La Reina. She continued giving recitals in major cultural centers in Santiago, travelling all over the country to research, organize concerts and give lectures and workshops about folklore. She travelled north to investigate and record the religious festival "La Tirana".
Violeta Parra exerted a significant influence on Héctor Pavez and Gabriela Pizarro, who would become great performers and researchers in their own right. The product of this collaboration is evident in the play "La Celebración de la Minga" staged at the Teatro Municipal de Santiago. She composed the music for the documentaries Wicker and Trilla, and contributed to the film Casamiento de negros, performed by Sergio Bravo. She wrote the book Cantos Folklóricos Chilenos which gathered all the research conducted so far, with photographs by Sergio Larraín and musical scores performed by Gastón Soublette (Santiago, Nascimento, 1979). She also wrote the Décimas autobiográficas, work in verse recounting her from her childhood to her trip to Europe.
She started a serious interest in ceramics, painting and arpillera embroidery. As a result of a severe hepatitis in 1959 that forced her to stay in bed, her work as a painter and arpillerista was developed greatly, so much so that the same year she exhibited her oil paintings and arpilleras at the First and also the Second Outdoor Exhibition of Fine Arts at Santiago's Parque Forestal.
On 4 October 1960, the day of her birthday, she met Swiss clarinetist Gilbert Favre with whom she became romantically involved. In 1961 she traveled to Buenos Aires, Argentina, where she exhibited her paintings, appeared in TV, gave recitals at the Teatro IFT and recorded an album of original songs for EMI Odeon - which was banned.
In June 1962 she returned to Santiago. With her children Isabel and Angel, and her granddaughter Tita, she embarked, with the Chilean delegation, for Finland to participate in the 8th "World Festival of Youth and Students" held in Helsinki. After touring the Soviet Union, Germany, Italy and France, Violeta Parra moved to Paris, where she performed at La Candelaria and L'Escale, in the Latin Quarter, gave recitals at the "Théâtre Des Nations" of UNESCO and performed on radio and television with her children. She then started living with Gilbert Favre in Geneva, dividing her time between France and Switzerland, where she also gave concerts, appeared in TV and exhibited her art.
In 1963 she recorded in Paris, revolutionary and peasant songs, which would be published in 1971 under the title "Songs rediscovered in Paris" She wrote the book "Popular Poetry of the Andes". The Parras took part in the concert of "L'Humanité" (official newspaper of the French Communist Party). An Argentine musician friend recorded at her home a version of "El Gavilán" ("The Hawk"), interpreted by Violeta Parra accompanied by her granddaughter on percussion. Violeta accompanied her children in the LP "Los Parra de Chillán" for the Barclay label. She began playing the cuatro, an instrument of Venezuelan origin, and the charango, an instrument of the high plateaus.
In April 1964 she did an exhibition of her arpilleras, oil paintings and wire sculptures in the Museum of Decorative Arts of the Louvre - the first solo exhibition of a Latin American artist at the museum. In 1965, the publisher François Maspero, Paris, published her book "Poésie Populaire des Andes". In Geneva, Swiss television made a documentary about the artist and her work, "Violeta Parra, Chilean Embroiderer".
Favre and Parra returned to South America, in June 1965. Violeta recorded two 45s, one with her daughter Isabel and another to instrumental music for cuatro and quena with Gilbert Favre, whom she christened "El Tocador Afuerino" (The outsider musician). Her music now incorporated the Venezuelan cuatro and the charango from the plateaus of northern Chile. EMI Odeon circulated the LP "Remembering Chile (a Chilean in Paris)," whose cover was illustrated with her own arpilleras. Soon after, however, Favre and Parra broke up, provoked by his desire to live in Bolivia where he was part of a successful Bolivian music act, Los Jairas.
Parra’s energy was invested in reviving a unique version of the Peña (now known as La Peña de Los Parra), a community center for the arts and for political activism. Some have stated she established the first 'peña', but as said by the RAE, places such as these had been called that at least since 1936. Parra s Peña was a tent (somewhat similar looking to a circus tent) that she set up on a 30 x 30 meter piece of land in the Parque La Quintrala, at number 340 Carmen Street, in today’s La Reina municipality of Santiago, in the area once known as la Cañada. Her tent hosted musical spectacles where she often sang with her children, and she and her children also lived on the same land. In La Reina, at La Cañada 7200, she also established a cultural center called "La Carpa de la Reina" inaugurated on 17 December 1965. She also installed a folk peña in the International Fair of Santiago (FISA), where she was invited. On the same year, she participated in numerous national television programs and signed a contract with Radio Minería which would be the last radio station to be used as a platform for her work.
Under the EMi Odeón label, in 1966 was released the LP "La Carpa de La Reina" featuring three songs performed by Violeta Parra and nine by guest artists announced at the carpa by Violeta herself. She travelled to La Paz, Bolivia, to meet with Gilbert Favre, where she regularly appeared in the Peña. She came back to Chile with Altiplano groups, presenting them in her carpa, on television and in her children's Peña. She also performed in concert at the Chilean southern cities of Osorno and Punta Arenas, invited by René Largo Farias, under the "Chile Ríe y Canta" ("Chile Laughs and Sings") program. Accompanied by her children and Uruguayan Alberto Zapicán, she recorded for RCA Victor the LP "The Last Compositions of Violeta Parra". In that year, Favre returned briefly to Chile with his group, but declined to stay, because in the meantime he had married in Bolivia.
Her most renowned song, Gracias a la Vida ("Thanks to Life"), was popularized throughout Latin America by Mercedes Sosa, in Brazil by Elis Regina and later in the US by Joan Baez. It remains one of the most covered Latin American songs in history. Other notable covers of this tragic, but widely beloved, folk anthem include the Italian guitar-vocal solo of Adriana Mezzadri and La Oreja de Van Gogh at the 2005 Viña del Mar International Song Festival. It has been treated by classically trained musicians such as in the fully orchestrated rendition by conservatory-trained Alberto Cortez. The song has been re-recorded by several Latin artists and Canadian Michael Bublé to gather funds for the Chilean people affected by the earthquake in Chile, February 2010.
Gracias a la vida que me ha dado tanto
Me dio dos luceros que cuando los abro
Perfecto distingo lo negro del blanco
Y en el alto cielo su fondo estrellado
Y en las multitudes el hombre que yo amo
Translated into English:
Thanks to life, which has given me so much
It gave me two bright stars that when I open them,
I perfectly distinguish the black from white
And in the sky above, her starry backdrop
And within the multitudes the man I love
"Volver a los Diecisiete"
Another highly regarded song - the last she wrote - is "Volver a los Diecisiete" ("Being Seventeen Again"). It celebrates the themes of youthful life, in tragic contrast to her biography.Unlike much popular music, it moves through minor key progression creating an introspective if not melancholy mood and thus has lent itself to classical treatment as well as popular music. Despite its originality, Parra's music was deeply rooted in folk song traditions, as is the case with Nueva Canción in general.
Parra died by suicide in 1967 by a gunshot to the head. Several memorials were held after her death, both in Chile and abroad. She was an inspiration for several Latin-American artists, such as Victor Jara and the musical movement of the "Nueva Cancion Chilena", which renewed interest in Chilean folklore.
In 1992, the Violeta Parra Foundation was founded at the initiative of her children, with the aim to group, organize and disseminate her still-unpublished work.In 1997, with the participation of Violeta Parra Foundation and the Department of Cultural Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile, her visual work was exhibited in the Museum of Decorative Arts of the Louvre Museum, Paris. In 2007, the 90th anniversary of her birth was commemorated with an exhibition of her visual work at the Centro Cultural Palacio La Moneda and the release of a collection of her art work titled, "Visual Work of Violeta Parra".
Violeta se fue a los cielos (Violeta Went to Heaven) (avi 1520mb)
included are English, Spanish and Italian subtitles 1 hour 44min
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Echanting, fascinating collection of Chilean folk songs, mostly vocals and guitars, with introductions by Violeta Parra, but also some ace runs into accordion and music box melodies and martial percussive pieces. Interesting for anyone looking to the Bolivian folk roots of Elysia Crampton
In this collection, Volume III of Parra's Folk Music of Chile series, Parra introduces us to the Cueca, a traditional folk music style and Chile's national dance, which is sung and danced at parties and festivities. Although Cuecas were played on the radio, Parra introduces listeners to popular forms of Cueca she recovered in her field work collecting traditional songs. Navigating Chile's thin land mass from Santiago to Concepción, Parra heard people in the countryside performing these songs. In her introduction, Parra identifies four types of Cueca: the short Corta, the waltz Valceada, the long Larga voluntaria, and the Balance/obligatoria where the singer individually calls on a man and then a women to dance. Casting herself in the role of ethnomusicologist, this intense musical investigation of Chile's popular folk song traditions went on to greatly influence Parra's own songwriting. The connection with her country's traditions earned her the reputation as Chile's foremost poet and folk singer.
Violeta Parra - La Cueca (flac 139mb)
01 Voz De Presentación De Violeta Parra 1:47
02 La Cueca Del Balance 2:36
03 Adiós Que Se Va Segundo 1:30
04 Floreció El Copihue Rojo 1:35
05 Un Viejo Me Pidió Un Beso 1:27
06 Cueca Del Organillero 1:24
07 Cuando Estaba Chiquillona 1:38
08 La Chiquilla En Arauco 1:42
09 Quisiera Ser Palomita 1:35
10 En El Cuarto De La Carmela 1:28
11 La Muerte Se Fue A Bañar 1:35
12 De La Pierna De Un Zancudo 1:27
13 Dame De Tu Pelo Rubio 1:28
14 Presentación Por Violeta Parra 1:21
15 Yo Vi Llorar A Un Hombre 1:35
16 Tengo Que Hacer Un Retrato 1:42
17 Pañuelo Blanco Me Diste 1:34
18 La Cueca Del Payaso 1:54
19 La Mariposa 1:44
20 Para Qué Me Casaría 1:32
21 Un Panadero Fue A Misa 1:23
22 La Niña Que Está Bailando 1:44
23 Cueca Con Harmónica 1:15
24 El Ají 'Maúro' 1:41
25 En La Cumbre De Los Andes 1:38
26 La Cueca Larga 3:41
27 Despedida 0:47
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Cantos Campesinos includes rare songs from the early part of Violeta Parra's career. Violeta traveled throughout the Chilean country side and collected songs composed and sung by campesinos in remote areas of Chile. This album, together with Las Décimas, is the best of La Violeta for lovers of authentic peasant singing. Especially Songs by Weight, Live the light of Don Creator and Viva Dios, live the Virgin, those who, beyond their religious content, have the courage to use the words and ways of playing the guitar that are still heard in the Chilean fields today. A delight full of humor, love, devotion and crib Creole.
Violeta Parra - Cantos Campesinos (flac 103mb)
01 El Primer Día Del Señor 2:19
02 Entre Aquel Apostolado 3:21
03 Versos Por Ponderación 2:33
04 Alulú 1:57
05 Arriba De Aquel Árbol 2:09
06 Viva La Luz De Don Creador 1:45
07 Los Padres Saben Sentir 2:48
08 Viva Dios, Viva La Virgen 1:58
09 Casamiento De Negros 1:42
10 Qué Pena Siente El Alma 1:57
11 Ausencia 2:07
12 El Palomo 2:35
13 Miren Como Corre El Agua 1:27
14 Dónde Estás Prenda Querida 2:22
15 Ojos Negros Matadores 1:30
16 Aquí Se Acaba Esta Cueca 1:30
17 La Jardinera 1:59
18 Violeta Ausente 2:19
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Hace Falta Un Guerrillero corresponds to an "anthological" album in which songs that represent the different stages of Violeta's career as folkloric composer are gathered. In fact, new recordings of his first compositions are delivered, such as "Por la mañanita", "The repentant son", "Casamiento de negros" and "La jardinera" (dated by Isabel Parra as composed between 1950 and 1954), Adding some of his latest compositions, such as «It takes a guerrilla fighter», «Twenty-one are the pains», «What brings you here», «I sing the difference» and «The people».
Given this characteristic, several themes appear in new versions: for example, "Por la mañanita", which, according to the notes corresponds to the first song that Violeta composed, had appeared on a single (today inencontrable) of Las Hermanas Parra, published in 1953 . Another case is that of "Marriage of Blacks", which had already appeared on a solo single by Violeta in 1955 , addition to the French discs of Le Chant du Monde , in 1956. The version that appears in this long play corresponds to the voice of Violeta only accompanied by his guitar.
Special mention deserves "La jardinera", which appears here in its fourth version, after the original single of 1954 (accredited to Las Hermanas Parra , although sung by Violeta and her daughter Isabel ), the solo reissue of Violeta in 1955 and the recording of Paris of 1956 .
Among the new songs, several critics were struck by the appearance of the first songs of Violeta's social content. In this regard, she recognizes in the notes of the album:
The obligation of each artist is to put their creative power at the service of men. Singing to the arroyitos and florcitas is already old. Today life is harder and the suffering of the people can not be left unattended by the artist.
Violeta Parra, Notes to «I sing the difference»
In that sense, "It takes a guerrilla fighter" expresses the desire of Violeta to be the mother of a guerrilla "like Manuel Rodriguez", which, according to Soublette, indicates that the author "wants a driver who is capable of changing the social order. On the other hand, the aforementioned "I sing the difference" refers to an event that Violeta herself witnessed: the birth of her neighbor Luisa, who "she saw with her own eyes and attended with her own hands ", all within the framework of the pomp of the celebrations of the 150th anniversary of the independence of Chile, taking into account the same" social "purpose of the song, Violeta musicalizes the poem" The people "of Pablo Neruda (contained in the book Canto General de 1950 ).
Violeta Parra - Hace Falta Un Guerrillero (flac 132mb)
01 Hace Falta Un Guerrillero 3:44
02 Veintiuno Son Los Dolores 2:15
03 Por La Mañanita 2:51
04 El Día De Tu Cumpleaños 1:46
05 El Chuico Y La Damajuana 2:16
06 Yo Canto A La Diferencia 4:53
07 Amigos Tengo Por Cientos 3:11
08 "Por Pa" Por Pasármelo Tomando" 1:36
09 Qué Te Trae Por Aquí 4:06
10 Casamiento De Negros 1:45
11 El Pueblo (Paseaba El Pueblo Sus Banderas Rojas) 2:30
12 La Jardinera 3:01
13 Puerto Montt Está Temblando 5:45
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This album is composed of interviews, lectures and songs compiled by Violeta in the Chilean countryside at the end of the 1950s. disc were recorded in the summer of 1960, and they remained unpublished in CD until 2010.
This would be an ambitious project, with a mixture of orchestra, and the intervention of typical Chilean instruments, such as "guitars, harps, drums and trutrucas (...)". The folklorist herself would be the main protagonist, since, in her own words:
This song has to be sung even by myself. Because pain can not be sung by an academic voice, a conservatory voice. It has to be a suffering voice like mine, which has been suffering for forty years.
The second track presents an extract of the ballet, which includes the first part, corresponding to the meeting of the main characters. Violeta would leave this project unfinished ballet.3 The only preserved fragment is precisely this song, known simply as "The Sparrowhawk", of which two other recorded versions are preserved through tapes (never under study): these two versions they have been added to different editions on CD, as in Cantos de Chile (Present / Absent), Compositions for Guitar and Songs Reencountered in Paris.
l Gavilán «The hawk» is, in short, one of the most analyzed songs of Violeta Parra's discography. Several university-level theses analyze their unusual musical and poetic structure; As an example, the researcher Christian Spencer describes this work, together with the "Anticuecas" as: «a monument of reflective-abstract nature and at the same time a musicological and foundational phenomenon.
The third track of the album contains the lecture that Violeta Parra was to make in the aforementioned Summer School, happily preserved in its entirety. The recording is dated January 5, 1960, and was made in the Auditorium of the School of Education of the Universidad de Concepción. During it, Violeta reads part of the manuscript of the book Chilean Folk Songs, in which she recounts her experiences rescuing authentic Chilean folklore through the fields. As an illustration of the stories presented, Violeta sings, accompanied by guitar, songs by some of her informants Alberto Cruz, Juan de Dios Leiva, Rosa Lorca, Antonio Suárez, Agustín Rebolledo, Emilio Lobos and Gabriel Soto.1 On several occasions it is possible listen to the reactions of the audience to the stories told by Violeta.
Violeta Parra - En el Aula Magna de Concepción (flac 207mb)
01 Entrevista Radial De Mario Céspedes A Violeta Parra 5:08
02 l Gavilán, Gavilán 14:45
03 Charla En El Aula Magna Y Canciones Finales (38:20)
(La Una Es La Principiante, Angel Glorioso Y Bendito, Décimas Por Padecimiento, Un Día Que Asuero Estaba
Huyendo Voy De Tus Rabias, Casamiento De Negros, El Sacristán)
Violeta Parra - En el Aula Magna de Concepción (ogg 88mb)
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This is an excellent collection of better compositions and folks recompilations from the greater Latin American's icons of the popular music. You can hear the well-known "Casamiento de Negros (Marriage of Black)," " Volver a los 17 (Back to the 17)," " Run Run Se Fue P'al Norte (Run Run Moved To North)" and, "Gracias a la Vida (Thanks to the Life)," of course.
The cuecas are included "Violeta Ausente (Absent Violeta)" and "La Jardinera (The Jardiniere)," with ethnic rhythmic shades. A deep political sign could hear in the lyrics of "La Carta (The Letter)," "Miren como Sonrien (Look at How they Smile)," "Qué dirá el Santo Padre (What will Pope Say)," and "Arauco tiene una pena (Arauco Has A Pain)". Some tracks melt with the melancholy of the Araucanian drum of "The Guillatún" and "Up Burning the Sun." As interludes could listen some "Decimas" (rhymes of roguish and country origin but with artful social content). The best of the album is the improvement of the sound regarding another CD non remastered. Remember these recordings were made between 1955 and 1966.
Violeta Parra - Antologia (flac 173mb)
01 Casamiento de Negros 1:39
02 Que Pena Siente el Alma 1:56
03 Dónde Estás Prenda Querida 2:22
04 Décima: Pa' Cantar de un Improviso...0:30
05 Violeta Ausente 2:20
06 Viva la Luz de Don Creador 1:45
07 El Palomo 2:36
08 En Este Mundo Moderno 0:22
09 Arauco Tiene Una Pena 2:58
10 Arriba Quemando el Sol 2:41
11 Décima: Yo No Protesto Por Mí...0:18
12 La Jardinera 1:59
13 Del Norte Vengo Maruca 2:44
14 La Carta 2:57
15 Décima: Dispénsenme las Chiquillas...0:26
16 Miren Como Sonríen 2:24
17 Según el Favor del Viento 2:28
18 Rim del Angelito 2:02
19 Mazurquica Modernica 2:18
20 Qué Dirá el Santo Padre 2:53
21 Volver a los 17 4:08
22 El Guillatún 2:26
23 El Albertío 2:06
24 Décima: 61 Besos, Creo 62...0:15
25 Run Ru Se Fue P'al Norte 3:55
26 Gracias a la Vida 4:31
(ogg mb )
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